Media reporting often highlights random and unexpected crimes. For example, during the January 2010 Haitian earthquake, social media played a key role in disseminating information about this tragedy (Bunz, 2010). There are 3.48 billion social media users in 2021, with the worldwide total growing by 288 million (9 percent) since this time last year. His research explores the effects of computer‐mediated communication on impression formation and relational communication. A contrast analysis suggested that a linear pattern of the sort suggested above was consistent with the data, t (178) = 1.692, p = .046 (one‐tailed), η2 = .016. The continued growth of new media has meant that information consumers are now far less beholden to what passes through traditional gatekeepers and are able to bypass gatekeepers altogether and turn directly to primary information sources, many of which are information consumers themselves. Newer communication technologies have increased the possibilities for how people can send and receive information. Additionally, neither trustworthiness, t (176) = 0.783, p = .218 (one‐tailed), nor goodwill, t (176) = 0.673, p = .251 (one‐tailed), displayed the expected pattern. Keywords: Internet, Social media, Social Networking, Children, Adolescents, Cyberbulling, Family. The rise of social media has changed how we perceive and handle information. In some cases, humans may not even be controlling the spread of information —programmes that automatically post and share information, called ‘bots’, can also operate social media accounts. Before becoming the Dean in 2016, he was the NUS Vice Provost (Graduate Education) from 2014-2016 and Associate Provost (Graduate Education) from 2011-2013. Social media seem designed to cater to those who want information in real time. While President Trump’s approach to the international system has been unconventional, isolating, abrasive, and at times counterproductive, it also bore some fruit, for example, by confronting China or by impressing upon allies the need for more equal partnerships. It is important to consider that credibility is a perception, and thus is not a quality inherent within a channel or source itself (Fogg & Tseng, 1999). Rather than publishing unique information, they make others' information known and add to it. Therefore working with and facilitating gatewatchers before a crisis erupts may also be beneficial for organizations. These newer channels provide new pieces of information not available in “legacy” channels which may be used to make credibility judgments, such as the ability to see how quickly and recently a page host updates their page. Cognitive elaboration was measured using a version of Perse's (1990) five‐item measure, modified to reflect the previously viewed Twitter page. Sciences, Continuing and Even though the relationship was statistically significant, the effect size is small. Social media has also seen a great deal of usage by those seeking health information, with 59% of adult Americans (80% of internet users) reporting that they have accessed this type of information online (Fox, 2011). It would be interesting for future research to examine what specific thoughts the recency of updating leads to, and what specific thoughts lead to credibility judgments. The correlations between elaboration and competence [r (172) = .289, p < .001], elaboration and goodwill [r (177) = .293, p < .001], and elaboration and trustworthiness [r (177) = .328, p < .001] were all statistically significant. Continued. Social media has taken over our lives in my opinion, and we need to be able to find a way to make what goes on in the real world more important than social media. Significant correlations were found between cognitive elaboration and each of the individual factors of source credibility and the gestalt credibility measure. Disaster Warnings in Your Pocket: How Audiences Interpret Mobile Alerts for an Unfamiliar Hazard. Moreover, opinion leaders appear to use media content for information acquisition and social utility (Lemish, 1985; Levy, 1978). These numbers, however, likely miss accounts that are bots (false negatives) and include accounts that are not bots (false positives). False positives are a big problem for social media platforms since inadvertently blocking genuine users on a large scale can result in a public relations disaster. The average time spent on social media was 61 minutes a day. Before joining NUS, he worked as a Research Fellow at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and the National University of Ireland, Galway. Agency cues capitalize on heuristics that emphasize credibility cues that, for example, are computer‐ (rather than user‐) generated. The information coming at us may be about some celebrity activity. As Levinson has pointed out, one of Twitter's hallmarks is the immediacy of messages.One important avenue to study is how this immediacy, or recency of updates, acts as a cue that can impact credibility. Positive Effects Of Media On Teens. Using a five‐point response scale (5 = strongly agree, 1 = strongly disagree), people reported their level of agreement with each item (i.e., When I looked at this page, I thought about it over and over again). One channel that provides many opportunities for this purpose is the Internet. However, a major question surrounding the use of social media as an information source is how people assess the source credibility of this information (Westerman, Spence & Van Der Heide, 2012). This question becomes especially important to answer for users of social media, as the gatekeeping function switches from producers to consumers of information for newer technologies (Haas & Wearden, 2003). The Effect of Source Labels in Nuclear Pre‐Crisis Communication in Televised News. This recommendation process creates what is now known as "filter bubbles" — users only see information that confirm their opinions, with no alternative views. To test this hypothesis, the bivariate correlations between cognitive elaboration and each of the three credibility measures were analyzed. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Brand engagement in self‐concept and consumer engagement in social media: The role of the source. For example: at the beginning of June 2016, Snapchat had 150 million people using their social app each day compare to Twitter, that has less than 140 million users on a daily basis. Dr Christian von der Weth is a Senior Research Fellow at the NUS Centre for Research in Privacy Technologies (N-CRiPT) in the School of Computing. Alternatively, it will require examination of social media and responses to it as a crisis unfolds in a more natural setting. As such, it is important to continue learning more about this process, and learning about how and why credibility judgments are made about social media information. Journalism is in a state of considerable flux. Address: School of Communication, The Ohio State University 3016 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall Columbus, OH 43210‐1339. After each participant had viewed the page, they were instructed to click on another link that sent them to the questionnaire. Room, Staff The aftermath of both events, as well as their ongoing impact on current affairs, has made the notion of "fake news" one of the most urgent global issues (and not incidentally the Word of the Year in 2017). Notably, this increases the importance of what was found in this study, as recency of updates was found to have a direct effect on cognitive elaboration and an indirect effect on credibility even for a topic where recency should not necessarily matter. Burgess and Bruns note that the “comparative openness of Twitter” as compared to other social media platforms, has created an “unprecedented wealth of social media data and stimulated rapid and significant innovation in computational tools to gather, analyze, and visualize this data in the digital humanities and social sciences” (2015: 94). As Levinson (, Although credibility and cognitive elaboration have not been extensively studied, a closely related concept that has been studied is issue involvement. The current study examines how pieces of information available in social media impact perceptions of source credibility. In 2016 we saw a lot of interesting statistics about new milestones that the most known social media networks reached. This lack of perceived bias from a machine leads to a greater trust in the information provided by machines compared to the information provided by people such as editors, producers, and the like (Sundar & Nass, 2001). Engineering, Financial The results of the hypothesis tests suggested that a possible mediation effect between recency of updates and credibility measures was present in the data. We cannot say we are not informed. Social media is now the research tool of choice for headhunters. This can be seen in environments such as Facebook when a user publishes a link and then comments on it, and similarly in Twitter.com where one does the same thing or where the user reposts a link. A more urgent topic might also increase the direct effect of recency on credibility, as a topic that requires fast updates (such as a crisis event) is likely to be more relevant and involving for people searching for information about the topic. The immediacy of updating that is a hallmark of Twitter (Levinson, 2009) is likely a major reason this channel is growing in use for informational purposes, including under situations of risk and crisis. as well. Most people agree that fake news constitutes intentionally published falsehoods, although it is often difficult to prove malicious intent. Understanding more about this reinvention process in the diffusion of social media for crisis communication would be very valuable research for future studies. Lifelong First, although the reliability of the scale was acceptable (α = .68), it was relatively low. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. At NUS Computing, faculty members conduct research on the detection, as well as dissemination of fake news on social media platforms. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Technological challenges in areas afflicted by crises (i.e., down satellite connections, etc.) Participants were asked to view one of three mock Twitter pages (see Figure 1 for an example). Social media platforms, by design, encourage users to share information effortlessly through the click of a button, and yet, information often gets distorted along the way, | By Dr Christian von der Weth and Professor Mohan Kankanhalli |. Specifically, participants looked at a Twitter page about heart disease in one of three recency conditions, and then responded to measures of cognitive elaboration (Perse, 1990) and source credibility (McCrosky & Tevern, 1999). The data showed that this linear effect did not occur for any of the three factors of source credibility, nor did it occur for the gestalt factor of overall credibility. Social media are one such technology that has seen increased usage as an information source (Pepitone, 2010). As new technologies allow the public to obtain information faster and under circumstances that even a few years ago were virtually impossible, use of such new technologies may be another direction for increased future research. He received his PhD from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Reports, Press Social media are a general category of channels and applications that highlight collaboration and working together to create and distribute content. Anyone can create, within minutes and sometimes anonymously, one or more Facebook or Twitter accounts. Biased reporting, the under- and over-reporting of certain topics, and the outright lies published and shared on social media prevented many voters from making well-informed decisions. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Research suggests that people use the Internet in seeking information about crises (Spence, Westerman, Skalski, Seeger, Sellnow, & Ulmer, 2006). This change has created a shift from the traditional notion of “gatekeeping” to what Bruns (2008) has referred to as “gatewatching.” Gatewatchers are unable to control the gates through which information passes, but instead keep a constant eye at the gates, and pass what flows through those gates onto others who then make the choice about the topic relevance and usefulness. This is called the Risk Pulse Monitor project and provides a dashboard visualising the number of times that local news articles within broad risk categories (defined by the World Economic Forum) are shared on social media. Office, Service Address: Department of Communication, North Dakota State University, Department #2310, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108. Increased use of social media can lead to poor sleeping patterns. Sense‐making in social media during extreme events. The Handbook of International Crisis Communication Research. Releases, News He is also Director of NUS Centre for Research in Privacy Technologies (N-CRiPT). In literature on diffusion of innovations, this is known as reinvention (Rogers, 2003), which occurs when a user makes changes to an innovation while adopting it. Hypothesis 2 predicted a positive association between credibility and cognitive elaboration. The data were consistent with this mediational model, χ2 (1, N = 181) < 0.01, p > .99, CFI > .99. The benefits of social media use justifies this paper’s output through opportunities created for information gathering, entertainment and social interaction. For government agencies, emergency responders, organization or individuals/celebrities that use a Twitter page to communicate to stakeholders, the findings suggest that updating information on the page is important, particularly for perceived credibility. H1: Recency of updating on a social media site will be positively associated with source credibility of the site's source. Does It Matter Who Communicates? Apart from bot detection, platforms should make it more difficult for users to create multiple accounts or blindly share information. And other work has not only hinted at the failure of social media to connect us, but it's laid out some of the specific mechanisms behind it. Universities also have a role to play in terms of both education and research. Patric R. Spence is an associate professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Kentucky. Hypothesis 3 predicted that a positive relationship would exist between recency of updates and cognitive elaboration. H2: Credibility will be positively associated with cognitive elaboration. There are many other negative effects like cyber bullying, body image issues etc. There is no consensus regarding a formal definition of fake news. In this post, we share with you the impact of media on teens with some relevant tips on how to handle media influence on children and adolescents. Consequently, a path analysis evaluated the possibility that the effect of recency of updates on credibility was mediated by the amount of cognitive elaboration in which a participant was engaged. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. One thing is sure: Your business can succeed in online marketing. Never has it been so easy to access, publish and share information. In order to test the hypotheses offered in the current study, a 3 condition experiment was designed. Commitment. In this study, a positive relationship between recency of updates on a Twitter page and the cognitive elaboration that viewers of that page would partake in was hypothesized and found such that faster updates were associated with greater cognitive elaboration. This has been evident again in the overall media cov erage of the e vents of 11 Sept em- ber 2001. The findings and questions which emerged from the data become particularly important as the use of social media continues to rise. This could have severely limited the participants' involvement with the topic. This collaboration not only consists of creating content together, but also discussing the content in an attempt to improve it collaboratively and to come to a shared understanding of it. In addition, people usually do not question information that confirms their own beliefs. People who spent more than 121 minutes a day on social media had … The media can cause crime and deviance through labelling. The negative effects of social media on teens and tweens can be obvious for parents and educators, but there are seldom discussions about the positive impact of social media.When teaching students how to build healthy screen time habits, it can be helpful to also understand the advantages of social media. It provides a sense of privacy for the information seeker in that he/she does not have to disclose personal information in order to obtain health related information. Social media is a phrase we throw around a lot these days, often to describe what we post on sites and apps like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, and others.So you can infer that social media are web-based sites that allow people to interact with each other. This ensured participant's names were kept separate from their responses. Therefore in new media environments the gates are now located not only with the information providers but also with the information consumers, who in the new media environment are acting as their own gatekeepers (Kovach & Rosenstiel, 1999). One possible reason (and potential limitation for the study) is the type of information used in the mock Twitter pages. News Recommendations from Social Media Opinion Leaders: Effects on Media Trust and Information Seeking, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2010/jan/14/socialnetworking‐haiti, http://www.pewinternet.org/˜/media//Files/Reports/2011/PIP_Social_Life_of_Health_Info.pdf, http://assets.en.oreilly.com/1/event/28/web2009_websquared‐whitepaper.pdf, http://money.cnn.com/2010/03/10/technology/twitter_users_active/index.htm?hpt=Mid, http://www.journalismethics.ca/online_journalism_ethics/gatekeeping.htm, http://www.cnn.com/2010/TECH/innovation/10/29/haiti.cholera.tech/index.html?hpt=Sbin. 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